Woshch’ishjí

Following up with the Navajo word nówehjí (further away; move!), is its opposing direction woshch’ishjí (or woshch’ishí).

It means ‘this way’ or ‘closer’.

A common way to use this word is woshch’ishígíí, which means ‘that which is closer by’. It’s a general term and can be clarified by preceding it with an object (noun). For example, “chidí woshch’ishígíí” takes on the meaning “the vehicle that is closer (or closest).”

Bą́ą́h ílį́

Bą́ą́h ílį́ is a Navajo expression that means “it is worth” or “it costs”.

Together with díkwíí, which denotes a query, you can ask “Díkwíí bą́ą́h ílį́?”  and you would be asking “How much does this cost?” or “How much is this worth?”

Of course, this does not always apply to cost in terms of money. It can be used to denote the cost of a trade, as in “It cost 14 (woven) rugs.”

Beyond bą́ą́h ílį́, there is also bą́ą́h azlį́į́’ which is the past tense. (When I say past tense, I really mean ‘perfective’ - which is a way of saying the action was finished, perfected, or completed.) Bą́ą́h azlį́į́’ means "it will cost." “it cost.”

Going the other direction in time is bą́ą́h adooleeł, or “it will cost.”

Using béeso (money - dollars) as the currency, you can state a price:

Naakits’áadah béeso bą́ą́h ílį́. It costs 20 dollars.

Or, confirm a price using a conditional:

Da’ dízdiin béeso bą́ą́h azlį́į́’? Did it cost 40 dollars?

Łitso

The Navajo word łitso is commonly translated directly as yellow. Whereas the English word is an adjective, in Navajo it is a state. So łitso, as with all other Navajo colors, operates as a verb.

This is why łitso comes at the end of statements. For example, “Chidí éí łitso” is the same thing as “the car is yellow.” The word “chidíłtsooí” is “the car that is yellow.”

A plural form of this word is daaltso - they (3rd person) are yellow - and is sometimes used instead of the actual thing they are describing. “The yellow ones” can refer, for instance, to the yellow m&ms if they are the only notable yellow objects around.

There is a similar word łitsxo. That extra ‘x’ forces the word to be pronounced with more force resulting in an amplification of sorts. In this case, it refers, more or less, to an intense yellow, or orange-colored.

Sha’shin

The Navajo word sha’shin comes at the end of a statement and is translated commonly as “maybe” or “I think”.

In speaking, it sounds also like the ‘a’ is nasalized, like shą’shin. -shą’ itself is a particle that is used to mean “what about…?” (eg. “Nishą’?” - “What about you?”).

Most of the time, it relies on context. For example, you and a friend are noticing students outside of school during the day. One turns to the other and says “I guess it’s spring break.” Other needs for ‘maybe’ (eg. “There are maybe/about 30 sheep in his flock.”) have other more appropriate forms, like daats’í.

Basic Body Parts in Navajo

Here are a few parts of the body that are easily recognizable. These terms aren’t always applied to humans or animals. For example, chidí bitsiits’iin is literally “the vehicle, its head” and it refers to the engine. These are in the third person:

  • bíla’ - his hand
  • bigaan - his arm
  • bikee’ - his foot
  • bijáád - his leg
  • bijaa’ - his ear
  • bik’os - his neck
  • bigod - his knee
  • bikétsíín - his ankle
  • bitsiits’iin - his head

The first person and second person (i.e. “my hand” and “your hand”) are formed by changing the bi- particle to either shi- or ni-. So shikee’ would be “my foot” and nijaa’ would be “your ear”. 

Here’s how to say the basic body parts in Navajo (pronunciation clip):